A lichen is a symbiosis between different organisms — a fungus and an alga or cyanobacterium. There are 3 main types of lichen in Antarctica.

A lichen is a plant, formed from the symbiotic association of certain fungi and (usually) green algae. Lichens with associated cyanobacteria are also known. Lichens occupy many different habitats, often in extreme environments.

3 main types of lichens exist in Antarctica:

  • Crustose lichens — these form a thin crust on the surface of the substrate they grow on.
  • Foliose lichens — these form leaf like lobes.
  • Fruticose lichens — these have a shrubby growth habit.

Growth rate

Lichens have very slow growth rates. In the most favourable of conditions in the Maritime Antarctic, growth rates reach 1 cm or more per 100 years.

In the harsher environment of Continental Antarctica, growth is much slower. In the case of Buellia frigida in the McMurdo Dry Valleys region, the growth rate may be as little as 1 cm per 1,000 years.


Lichens can be found growing in most areas of the Antarctic that capable of supporting plant life. Currently, 4 general distributional patterns of lichens are known. These are:

  • species confined to the Maritime Antarctic
  • species found in the Peninsula and extending to the Lesser Antarctic
  • species with a circum-Antarctic distribution
  • species with very disrupted or disjunct distribution patterns.

The Maritime Antarctic lichens are restricted to the northern Peninsula and nearby islands. Many of the lichens found in Antarctica are only in this area. A number of the lichen species found here are also found in the sub-Antarctic islands and the colder parts of the southern continents. These may represent a southern extension of these populations. This area has the greatest species diversity in Antarctica.

Lichens have been collected from as far south as 86°30'.


Lichens have a number of adaptations that enable them to survive in Antarctica. They are able to exhibit net photosynthesis while frozen at temperatures as low as −20 °C. They can absorb water from a saturated atmosphere when covered by snow. Snow cover provides protection from the elements. Most growth appears to occur when lichens are buried beneath at least a thin protective layer of snow.

Lichens can survive long unfavourable periods of drought in a dry and inactive state. In continental Antarctica, many lichens are able to absorb water vapour from snow and ice.